Heat olive oil in a large saucepan set over medium-high heat. Add shallot, carrots, and celery. Saute until the vegetables are beginning to soften, 2 to 3 minutes.
Add chopped tomatoes with juices, chicken broth, and bay leaves. Bring to a boil, then lower heat to medium-low, partially cover, and simmer for 20 minutes.
Uncover the soup, remove the bay leaves, add cooked chicken, beans, and pasta. Increase the heat to medium-high and cook until the pasta is al dente, about 10 minutes.
Season with salt and pepper, add ¼ cup finely chopped fresh parsley and 8 leaves fresh basil, thinly sliced. Garnish with grated Parmesan cheese. Serve.